One small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.
-- Neil Armstrong
On July 20th, 1969 at 4:17pm the Lunar Module, "Eagle," touched down on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon, with but 45 seconds left of fuel in the tank after an overshot landing some four miles. Once on the surface, astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin became the first men to walk on the Moon, spending about two hours and fifteen minutes outside the spacecraft to collect specimens of lunar material to bring back to Earth. They planted an American flag and plaque and spent about 21 hours and 36 minutes at the "Tranquility Base", before rejoining Command Pilot Michael Collins of "Columbia" in orbit. The entire mission to the moon, launched from the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, lasted a little over eight days -- with more than half a billion people from around the world watching this historic event on television. Despite error codes in the computer system, a broken circuit breaker, and malfunction in the discarded module upon splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, the mission signaled one of the greatest scientific achievements of all time. It effectively ended the Space Race, while fulfilling President J. F. Kennedy's goal of landing a man on the moon and safely returning him to Earth.
The following articles are drawn from Proquest Historical Newspapers, which informs and inspires classroom teaching and learning:
- Wilford, J. N. Special to The New York Times. (1969, Apr 19). Astronauts Simulate Their Moon Activity: Astronauts Simulate Moon Jobs In Space Center's Training Lab. New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Bookbinder. (1969, May 26). Apollo 11 Astronauts Get Good Grounding For Moon. Newsday (1940-1991)
- Stevens, W. K. Special to The New York Times. (1969, Jun 08). Apollo 10 Men Say 'Go' For the Moon(2): Apollo 10 Astronauts, Ebullient After Debriefing, See No Bar To Moon Landing. New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Wilford, J. N. Special to The New York Times. (1969, Jul 06). Astronauts Confident of Moon Landing: Apollo Crew Appears Calm 11 Days Before the Mission. New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Wilford, J. N (1970, Jul 19). A Year Later: Apollo's Message. New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Crew of Apollo 11 Rededicates Moon Landing To World Peace. (1970, Jul 21). New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Cowen, R. C. (1984, Jul 19). Apollo 11 Milepost: Looking Back At That First Giant Step Onto the Moon: Lunar Landing 15th Anniversary Moon. The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current File)
- Debnam, B. (1984, Aug 18). The Anniversary Of a Great Space Event: First Men On the Moon the Apollo 11 Mission To the Moon and Back. Los Angeles Times (1923-1995)
- Apollo 11 Astronauts To Mark Moon Landing Anniversary. (1989, Jul 15). New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Lunar Landing: 'Apollo 11' Crew Mark 35th Anniversary Of First Walk By Man On the Moon. (2004, Jul 21). The Irish Times (1921-Current File)
- Beattie, Donald. Taking Science to the Moon: Lunar Experiments and the Apollo Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, c2011. e-book.
- Bisney, John and J. L. Pickering. Moonshots and Snapshots of Apollo 11: A Rare Photographic History. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico, 2015. e-book.
- Prevalet, Romain. Neil Armstrong: The Success of Apollo 11 and the First Man On the Moon. Brussels: Lemaitre Publishing, 2016. e-book.
- Aldrin Apollo 11 Original, NASA, Courtesy of Wikimedia
- A Walk on the Moon During Apollo 11, Courtesy of NASA
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