On May 10, 1994, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (1918-2013), leader of the African National Congress, was inaugurated as the first black president of South Africa. He was the first fully, democratically elected president in his country, and he held office as President of South Africa until June 16th, 1999.
A lawyer by profession, Mandela dedicated his life to nonviolent forms of protest, including strikes, boycotts, marches and other acts of civil disobedience. Known as the Black Pimpernel, he went underground in 1961 and served two lesser prison sentences in Pretoria. In 1964, he was convicted along with many others in the Rivonia Trial that investigated 199 counts, reduced to 193, of sabotage. As prisoner number 466/66 on Robbin Island, Mandela spent 18 years laboring in a quarry and living without water or a bed in his cell. In 1982 he was transferred to Pollsmoor Maximum Security Prison in Capetown, and six years later to a cottage at Victor Version Prison near Paarl where he was placed under house arrest. In 1989 President F.W. De Klerk ordered the Mandela's release.
Nelson Mandela and former President F.W. De Klerk's were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for their combined efforts to dismantle the country's system of apartheid that favored whites and mandated racial segregation.
The following articles are drawn from Proquest Historical Newspapers
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- Daniels, R. (1994, May 04). Nelson Mandela: Now He Must Lead a Nation. New Journal and Guide (1916-2003)
- Battersby, J. (1994, May 04). South Africa Takes Final Steps Toward Long-Sought Democracy. The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current File)
- Daniels, R. (1994, May 06). Mandela Must Begin Task of Economic Reconstruction. Philadelphia Tribune (1912-2001)
- Taylor, P. (1994, May 10). 'The Day for Which We Have Waited For 300 Years': Mandela Elected President of Democratic South Africa'. The Washington Post (1974-Current File)
- Heroic Leader Takes Centre Stage. (1994, May 11). The Irish Times (1921-Current File)
- Clines, F. X. (1994, May 11). Dance for Joy! Come Dance a Toyi- Toyii! New York Times (1923-Current File)
- Stone, S. (1994, Aug 19). Mandela's First 100 Days: How He's Doing As South Africa's President. Philadelphia Tribune (1912-2001)
- Martin, S. (2003, Sep 13). Hope In a Time of Democracy. The Irish Times (1921-Current File)
- Martin, S. (2013, Dec 06). Freedom Fighter Turned Premier: Not Many Political Leaders Have had Fewer Personal Flaws Than Nelson Mandela. The Irish Times (1921-Current File)
- Humphreys, J. (2013, Dec 06). 'He No Longer Belongs To Us, He Belongs To the Ages'. The Irish Times (1921-Current File)
- Boehmer, Elleke. Nelson Mandela: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. e-book
- Braun, Kenneth. Saving Nelson Mandela: The Livonia Trial and the Fate of South Africa. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. e-book
- Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Back Bay Books, c1994, 1995. DT1949.M35 A28 1995
- McDonough, Yona Zeldis. Peaceful Protest: The Life of Nelson Mandela. New York: Walker and Company, 2002. Curr DT197 .M38 2002
- Nelson Mandela Foundation offers detailed information and resources about Nelson Mandela -- his life, genealogy, exhibitions, collections, and more
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